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anapsid skull vs diapsid

Amniotes represent one of the great success stories in the evolution of vertebrates. The basilar membrane of birds contains rows of hair cells that vary in height across the membrane. The captorhinids were medium-sized, lizard-like reptiles, although the broad-jowled head was proportionately larger than that of most lizards. We noted earlier that Sphenodon possesses the lower temporal bar.

Some of these are teeth attached loosely to the tooth-bearing bones, fusion of the pelvic bones late in development, hooked fifth metatarsals, and paired copulatory organs (hemipenes; rudimentary in Sphenodon). Generalized phylogeny of amniote skulls. Small, single-tooth-rowed captorhinids are also known from upper Permian rocks of southern Africa (Zimbabwe and South Africa). The euryapsid condition apparently evolved from a secondary “filling in” of the lower temporal fenestra. The orbits are large openings, as are the supratemporal and infratemporal fenestrae. Curr. These features are still lacking in the oldest known diapsid reptiles. However, this is still controversial, and turtles are sometimes classified as diapsids based on molecular evidence. The pareiasaurs were the giants of the parareptiles with some taxa to 3 m (TL) (Fig. 1.12) are two of these eureptiles, and a third is Petrolacosaurus. Snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and dinosaurs are diapsids. Turtles are traditionally considered repre­sentative of the anapsid condition in which the lateral temporal region of the skull is unfenestrated, reflecting the ancestral amniote condition. One message board is dedicated to reptile medicine and is monitored by a number of nationally renowned experts. Present-day lepidosaurs include lizards, snakes, and the tuatara (Vitt and Caldwell, 2013). Their feet are paddle-like, their caudal vertebrae are dorsoventrally deep so that the tail probably served as a sculling organ, and the compact bone of their ribs and vertebrae is greatly thickened (pachyostotic), an adaptation presumably for buoyancy control. They had elongate thoracic ribs that probably supported an aerofoil membrane and permitted them to glide from tree to tree or to the ground, as in the extant gliding lizard Draco. Orders may be placed at This is the condition present in most reptiles. Petrolacosaurus was a moderate-sized (ca. Some parareptiles have openings behind the eye socket in the cranium but others lack such features.

This condition is restricted to the clade comprising the mammals and all their extinct relatives forming the sister group to the Reptilia (Synapsida). Among those that display a fully diapsid pattern are tuataras (Sphenodon) and crocodylians. Interestingly, the Kasimovian-aged Garnett locality features a diapsid eureptile, Petrolacosaurus kansensis, which exhibits upper and lateral temporal fenestrae (see Diapsida, below). During the Mesozoic, a number of groups of diapsid reptiles independently adapted to life in the sea (Motani, 2009). Fitch and Margoliash noted this departure from conventional interpretations, but at the time considered it to be an anomaly. Reptilia is divided into Parareptilia and Eureptilia. This turtle is from Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize and is rare in captivity. The oldest mammals were from the Upper Triassic (~200 Ma) (Kielan-Jaworowska et al., 2004). FIGURE 1.9. Diapsids have two fenestrae on each side and evolved from ancestors that had none. Sphenodontidans were moderately diverse and abundant in Late Triassic and Jurassic, and largely disappeared from the fossil record thereafter. Hylonomus (Fig. Desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis).

This is the anapsid condition, which is found only in turtles among present-day amniotes. Three basic patterns of fenestration are recognized. These turtles are aquatic specialists; their paddle-like feet make them excellent swimmers.

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